Ⅰ. The purposes of operational training
through operational training students can master the operations of stand-by main engine, blowing cylinder, trying main engine and master how to operate and manage propulsion unit at the maneuver and after the speed being constant, students should be also familiar with operational and managing attentive items very well.
II. The operational contents
(1) Relevant system’s preparations while ship’s propulsion unit being stand-by and the operations of blowing, trying main engine ；(1) 船舶推进装置备车时各系统的准备及冲、试车操作；(2) The maneuver operations for ship’s propulsion unit;(2) 船舶推进装置机动时的操作；
(3) The operations of changing fuel oil and the management after main engine * s speed being constant ；(3) 船舶推进装置换油操作及定速后管理；
(4) The operations of “FINISH WITH ENGINE”.
Ⅲ. Training equipment
Ship’ s propulsion unit-one set, including main engine, relevant system serving to propulsion unit, reducing gear case and its service system, hydraulic dynamometer and its service system.
IV. Equipment and its technical parameter四、主要设备及其技术参数
1. Main engine
Cyl. number * cyl. diameter * stroke ： 6×260 mm×320 mm缸数×缸径×行程:6×260 mm×320 mm
Rating power * rating revolution ： 662 kW×720 r/min额定功率×额定转速：662 kW×720 r/min
Average effective pressure： 1.104 MPa
Maximum explosive pressure：9. 5 MPa
Fuel oil consumed ratio：211 g/(kW ? h)
燃油消耗率:211 g/(kW ? h)
Lube oil consumed ratio： 1.36 g/(kW ? h)滑油消耗率:1.36 g/(kW ? h)
Minimum stable speed：300 r/min
Type of turbocharger： ABB VTR-250
2. Type of reducing gear(GWC 30/32-01)
Speed ratio：2: 1
Input power：750 kW
Input revolution：720 r/min
Elastic shaft coupling：YULASTIC-LC4010
3. Type of hydraulic dynamometer( Y2000)
Maximum receiving power： 1200 kW
Permissive maximum revolution: 10,00 r/min允许最高转速:1000 r/min
V. Practical operational process
1. Relevant system’s preparations while stand-by engine and the operations of blowing, trying main engine1.船舶推进装置备车时各系統的准备及冲、试车操作1) Stand-by engine before sailing
The person being on duty in engine department receives the order “STAND/BY ENGINE”, he should inform c/e, duty engineer and relevant persons to complete the preparations immediately, the above order should be ensured by duty engineer, then telegraph, ship clock and steering gear must be tested with bridge, the following operations may be prepared. ( The aim of stand-by engine is to ensure main engine rotation’s flexibility, serving system should supply adequate oil, water, air, steam and electricity to main engine, the controlling system must be in normal, the thermal parameters should be in normal range.)轮机部值班人员接到驾驶台“备车”指令后，应立即通知轮机长、值班轮机员和有关人员进人机舱进行备车工作，由值班轮机员回车令备车并着手对车钟、对时钟和对舵工作，随后进行以下各项准备工作。（备车的主要目的是确保主机运转灵活，动カ系统保证油、水、气、汽、电供给充足,控制系统工作正常，热工参数值处于正常工作范围）(1) The operations of compressed air system while stand-by engine (The diagram of compressed air system is shown in Appendix 1 fig. 4)(1) 压缩空气系统的备车操作(压缩空气系统图见附录ー图4)① Compressed air should be sure to supply adequately: during on duty, compressed air bottle must be kept adequate (1.5 ~3.0 MPa). While stand-by engine, air compressor should be put into use in automatic mode or in manual mode to supply compressed air to air bottle up to enacting value (2. 5 MPa), the working conditions of compressor must be monitored.
① 保证压缩空气供给充足：值班期间，应经常保持空气瓶压力（1.5 ~3.0 MPa)充足。备 车时，应按操作规程使空压机自动控制系统投人工作或手动起动空压机,给主空气瓶充气达到 设定值(2. 5 MPa左右），并经常监视空压机的工作状态。
② Air resource should be kept clean ： open main compressed air bottle’s waste cock to discharge sludge and wasting-water.
③ The controlling air system should be kept in good condition and supply clean and qualified air to controlling system (0.7 MPa).
③ 保证控制空气系统工作正常并供给洁净合格的控制空气（0.7 MPa)。（应经常检查气 源净化装置的工作状況）④ Supplying starting compressed air: open bottle’s outlet valve，middle stop-valve and main starting valve.
(2) The operations of F. W. cooling system while stand-by engine. (The diagram of cooling water system is shown in Appendix 1 fig. 2)(2) 淡水冷却系统的备车操作（冷却水系统图见附录ー图2)① Main engine’s warming and it’s changing: ship’s propulsion unit often uses generator engine’s cooling water to warm up during stopping, while stand-by engine, relevant valve and warming valve must be closed to keep main engine in working condition.
② Inspect water level of expansive tank, if necessary, add water to the tank.
③ Start F. W. circulating pump and ensure its running is normal.
④ Correctly clear off the air which exists in each part of cooling water’s system, keep the pressure in system in normal range.
(3) The operations of lube oil system while stand-by engine (The diagram of lube oil system is shown in Appendix 1 fig. 1)(3) 滑油系统的备车操作（滑油系统图见附录ー图1)① Oil level’s inspection and adding: inspect the following oil level ： main engine lube oil circulating tank, rocker oil tank, governor, turbocharger, driving gear case (intermediate bearing, stem shaft bearing’s high/low oil tank, cam shaft and stem seal) , if necessary, add lube oil to tank.
① 油位的检查和补充：检查主机滑油循环柜、摇臂油柜、调速器、增压器、传动齿轮箱以及 轴系中间轴承、艉轴承高低油拒、凸轮轴、艉轴封等装置的油位,必要时进行补充。
② Lube oil being circulated and heated: after inspecting main lube oil pump and all valves in the system being in correct position, start main lube oil pump, then examine and adjust the pressure of lube oil to normal value (0.4 MPa above); if oil temperature is too low, please start the transferring pump of lube oil purifier and electric heater to circulate and heat the lube oil in the circulating tank. If stop is very long, pre-lube oil pump of reducing gear case must be start to pre-lubricate.
② 循环润滑或加热：检查确认主机滑油泵状态正常，滑油系统各阀件处于工作位置后起动主机滑油泵，检查并调整油压(0.4 MPa以上）正常；如油温太低,还可起动滑油分油机输油泵 及电加热器，循环加热循环柜滑油;若停航时间较长，应起动齿轮箱预润滑油泵，进行预润滑。
③ Adding oil manually: in general before start main engine，please add cylinder oil to cylinder manually; if engine stop is very long, before start, rocker must be added manually; rod bearing must be added grease.
③ 手动注油：通常主机起动前，应人工加注气缸油；如停机时间较长，起动前,摇臂应人工 注油，水力测功器滚珠轴承应加注牛油。
(4) The operations of fuel oil system while stand-by engine (The diagram of fuel oil system is shown in Appendix 1 fig. 3)(4) 燃油系统的备车操作（燃油系统图见附录ー图3)① Inspect fuel oil level: inspect the oil level of gas, heavy oil’s service tank and oil settling tank, if necessary, add fuel oil to service tank through fuel oil purifier and add fuel oil to settling tank through transferring pump；① 检查油位：检查轻油及重油日用柜和沉淀油柜油位,必要时分油人日用柜并给沉淀柜补油；② Inspect valves：inspect and ensure each valve is in normal position；② 检查阀门：检查并确认系统各阀件处于正常位置；③ Inspect and start fuel oil circulating pump (or oil booster) to supply oil to system, fuel oil system should be clear off air and discharged waste ；③ 检查并起动燃油循环泵(或增压泵）：系统驱气、放残；④ Heat: heat correctly according to fuel oil quality.
(5) The operations of injector’s system while stand-by engine(5) 喷油器冷却系统的备车操作
In this unit, diesel oil is used to cool, cooling circulating pump is driven by main engine, while stand-by engine, inspect to ensure all valves in the system are in correct position, oil tank level must be inspected, if necessary, add diesel oil to the tank.
(6) The operations of sea water cooling system while stand-by engine(6) 海水冷却系统的备车操作
This unite has high and low temperature sea water cooling system, each system has different cooling object, two system can be substituted each other. High-temperature sea water cooling system uses to cool M/E cylinder-cooler, low-temperature sea water cooling system uses to cool the following devices： atmospheric condenser, the cooler of two sets air compressor, the cooler of reducing gear case, auxiliary engine’s cooler and air cooler. Low-temperature sea water cooling system also supplies working water to hydraulic dynamometer. The diagram of sea water system is shown in Appendix 1 fig. 2, while stand-by engine, please inspect the flexibility of sea water pump and all valves correctly open, power on frequency-conversion to prepare the controllable frequency of high sea water pump.
本装置设有高温海水冷却系统和低温海水冷却系统，每个冷却系统的冷却对象不同。其 中，高温海水冷却系统用于主机缸套水的冷却，低温海水冷却系统用于冷却以下设备:大气冷 凝器、两台主空压机冷却器、減速齿轮箱冷却器、空气冷却器、副机冷却器。低温海水冷却系统 也提供水力测功器的工作水，应急情况下两个系统又可互为备用。海水冷却系统原理见附录ー图2,备车时应检查确认海水泵运转灵活，各阀件开启正常，接通变频器电源,为适时进行高 温海水泵的变频控制做准备。
2) Main engine’s turning, blowing and trying2)柴油主机的盘车、冲车和试车
Before this operation, please inform bridge, after being allowed, this operation can be carried out.
① The preparations: inspect and ensure that no blocks exist in shaft of engine, inspect and ensure all adding points where need to add have been added; ensure all indicative cocks have been opened.
① 准备工作：检查并确认缸盖、轴系等无阻碍转车的情況，检查并确认应注油处均已注油 (人工加注气缸油），确认示功阀已开启。
② Turning engine: pick up turning gear to rotate several rounds, inspect and ensure all are in normal conditions, and then disconnect the turning gear.
③ Blowing engine: unscrew the protective cap in the start controlling valve, then push the rod in the start controlling valve manually to blow engine, inspect indicative cocks to ensure no waste oil and water is blown out, after ensuring normal, open the indicative cocks.
③ 冲车：旋开起动控制阀上的保护帽，按下起动控制阀顶杆进行冲车，检查示功阀有无残 油、水等异物吹出，确认正常后关闭示功阀。
④ Start and test engine: inspect and ensure all preparations have been finished； inform bridge and then start main engine, let engine run in idle speed; complete direction-changing operation by direction-changing handle, let main engine run in low speed to ensure it runs normally; then the conversion switch of operational position turns to remote position (E. C. R or BRIDGE) , after successively starting and trying engine, please inform bridge that main engine has been ready and it has been in stopping condition of stand-by engine.
④ 起动与试车：检查并确认各项准备工作已切实做好；通知驾驶台；起动柴油主机并使其怠速运转；使用换向手柄进行换向操作试验;低转速短时间运转，确认主机工作正常;将操作部位转换开关转至遥控位置(集控室或驾驶台），起动试车均正常后，通知驾驶台主机已备妥并 进人备车停车状态。
2. The maneuvering operations for ship’s propulsion unit2.船舶推进装置机动操作
Maneuvering operations: operate main engine rapidly according to the orders from bridge, this is the premise to ensure ship’s safe.
(1) Thermal parameter’s monitoring and adjusting： during maneuvering running, the load of engine varies often and quickly, thermal parameters of oil, water, gas, steam and electricity should be kept in normal range. All thermal parameters can be monitored in location through measuring meter or in E. C. R through automatic alarm and monitoring equipment, if parameters are over normal range, the alarm signal must be given out automatically to inform duty engineer to adjust the parameters.
(2) The cooling water’s temperature for cylinder liner is controlled and kept stability by adjusting the revolutions of high temperature’s sea water pump automatically through computer and frequency conversion.
(3) The pressure of cooling water (fresh-water and sea water) is adjusted through the outlet valve of centrifuging pump.
(4) The pressure of fuel oil and lube oil is adjusted through pass-by valve or adjustable pressure valve.
(5) The viscosity of fuel oil (temperature) is automatically controlled by viscosity meter or adjusted by passing steam manually.
(6) Lube oil temperature is automatically adjusted by constant-temperature valve or adjusted manually, also adjusted through pass-by sea water.
(7) Scavenging temperature is adjusted through controlling cooling water to pass-by air cooler.
3. The operations of changing fuel oil and the management after main engine’s speed being constant3.船舶推进装置换油操作及定速后管理
(1) The operations of changing fuel oil
Almost all main propulsive equipments should make the operations of changing fuel oil before entering harbor or after departure harbor, after departure harbor, the operations of changing fuel oil must be operated according to the following:
① Open steam valve adequately to increase the entering temperature of gas oil gradually;① 开大加热蒸气阀逐渐提高轻油的进机温度；② When the entering temperature of gas oil meets to the requirement of changing oil, converse the changing oil valve, then stop gas oil and supply heavy oil;② 待轻油进机温度满足换油要求时转换换油阀，停轻油供重油；③ The equipment of fuel oil viscosity adjusting puts into use;③ 燃油黏度调节装置启动运行；
④ The steam valve which is controlled by manually should be closed, and the viscosity may be automatically controlled by the equipment of fuel oil viscosity adjusting；④ 人工调整的蒸气阀关闭，由黏度调节装置进行自动控制；⑤ After ensuring gas/heavy oil have been finished changing, please inform bridge;⑤ 确认轻/重油已转换妥当后，通知驾驶台；
⑥ Shut off main start compressed air according to practice.
(2) The managements alter main engine’s speed being constant(2) 定速后管理
① The basic requirements of the managements after main engine’s speed being constant: keep all serving system in normal condition; provide adequate oil, water, gas, steam and electricity to engine; Each working part is not leak and not abnormal sounds and vibration; all working parameter are in best given value.
②At interval, inspect and record each running parameter according to circuit inspectional route, if anything is abnormal, settle them immediately.
The contents of circuit inspection:
(a) Liquid level’s inspection: the level of expansive tank, fuel oil service (settling tank), lube oil circulating tank, rocker case, governor, turbocharger, reducing gear case and water pool must be inspected.
(b) Pressure inspections：the pressure of main engine lube oil, rocker lube oil, reducing gear case lube on and working oil, main engine cooling water, high temperature sea water, low temperature sea water, fuel oil injector cooling oil, scavenging air, fuel oil inlet, controlling air, dynamometer’s water and air bottle should be inspected.
(c) Temperature inspection: the temperature of main engine lube oil measuring points, freshwater cooling measuring points, oil injector cooling measuring points, scavenging air, exhaust gas, fuel oil system measuring points, lube oil of turbocharger, governor, reducing gear case lube oil and dynamometer.
(d) Speed inspection: main engine’s speed and turbocharger’s speed.
(e) Inspect whether there is not abnormal sound, smell, vibration and leakage or not.
(f) Inspect all waste valves, the place where needs to add lube oil manually should be added.
4. The operations of “FINISH WITH ENGINE” for ship’s propulsion unit4.船舶推进装置完车操作
(1) The operations before “FINISH WITH ENGINE”
① After receiving the notice of “CHANGING OIL/STAND BY” , fuel oil temperature must be decreased gradually, when the temperature meets to requirement, change heavy/gas conversion valve until all fuel oil has been replaced by gas oil, then report to bridge. Generally the time of changing oil is one hour.
① 接驾驶台“换油、备车”通知后，逐渐降低燃油进机温度，待达到要求的温度时，转换重/ 轻油转换阀，直到认定轻油已完全替换重油时，告知驾驶台。通常换油时间为1 h。
② Operate main engine according to bridge’s order, decrease engine’s speed gradually. Run in low speed to decrease engine’s temperature gradually, then stop.
(2) The operations of “FINISH WITH ENGINE”
After receiving the order of u FINISH WITH ENGINEM, the following operational process should be carried out.
① If main engine is controlled by bridge remote control mode, at this time the operational position should be turned to E. C. R or location.
① 如果是驾驶台遥控，此时应把操车位置转到集控室或机旁；② Open the indicative cocks ( add cylinder oil to cylinder while turning engine, then blow cylinder).
② 开启示功阀（冲车，注气缸油同时转车）；③ Close main stop valve in air system and air bottle’s outlet valve.
④ Shut off operational controlling air and release the pressure.
⑤ Stop fuel oil booster ( or circulating pump) and viscosity controlling equipment, close relevant valve.
⑤ 停燃油增压泵（或循环泵）及黏度控制装置,关闭有关阀门；⑥ Open air scavenge case and discharging-waster valve of turbocharger.
⑦ Let main engine F. W. pump continue to run about 30 minutes, then stop. Open the cooling water of auxiliary engine to warm up main engine.
⑦ 让主机淡水泵继续运行约30 min后停止，并转发电柴油机冷却水进主机暖机；⑧ Main lube oil pump may be stopped or continue to work about 30 minutes or keep running according to the condition of fact.
⑧ 主滑油泵视情況或运转30 min后停止，或保持运转。
After the above operations are sure to be correct, then on-duty of berth is beginning.
VI. The operational and managing attentive items六、操作及管理时的注意事项
(1) Before starting main engine, cooling water system, fuel oil system, lube oil system and starting air system should be inspected to ensure all of system in good condition.
^2) After starting, the parameters of oil, water, air, steam and electric system must keep in normal range, inspect each connect to ensure not leak, listen attentively to ensure whether there is not abnormal sound from main engine.
(2 )起动后，应保证油、水、气、汽、电等系统各热工参数值在正常范围内，检查各管路连接 处有无泄漏，倾听柴油机有无异常声响，保证柴油机无振动现象。
(3 ) While changing oil operation, oil temperature sudden change should be avoid, during constant-speed voyage, circuit inspection should be enhanced, each parameter should be controlled in normal range.
Ⅶ Training requirements
Students should be finished each kind of operation which is required in the operational contents independently, and master all attentive items of the equipment’s operations.
Ⅷ Reasoning subjects
(1) Combination with practical devices, please analyze the reasons that main lube oil pump and fresh-water pump needs to continue running for some time after finishing with engine.
(1) 结合实际设备，试分析主机完车以后，滑油泵及主淡水泵须继续运行一段时间的 原因。
(2) Combination with practical devices, please analyze the aims of the following operations：
① M/E needs to be turned 1 -2 r/min by turning gear before stand-by engine, analyze its aims ；① 主机备车前,须合上盘车机盘车1 ~2转的目的；② M/E needs to be turned 1-2 r/min by turning gear after finishing with engine, analyze its aims；② 主机完车后，须合上盘车机盘车的目的；
③ Analyze the reasons that a great deal white liquid with bubble blows from indicative cock when operating turning gear.
Ⅸ The practical report
The requirement and format of practical report is compiled in another mode.