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“涉外工程投标书”的翻译技巧

近几年随着涉外工程项目的增多,翻译量也随之增多。通常投标时间短,所以有时标书的部分内容会请翻译公司来翻译。然而返回来的译文“中式英语”味很浓。

1出现"中式英语"倾向的原因

其原因有如下几个方面:一是工程类标书用词比较专业化;二是时间性强,给翻译的时间有限,译者经常处于完成任务的匆忙之中,在限定的时间内 很少进行推敲润色。下面以某翻译公司翻译的“施工组织设计”为样本,对其中出现的“中式英语”进行分析。

例:(1) 按照制定的进度和质量要求,承包商的工作应紧密协调,严格制定管理控制程序。

原译:Based on the established progress and quality requirements, the Contractors? work should be tightly coordinated, the management control procedure should be strictly established.

改译:Based on the planned progress and quality requirements, the Contractor shall fully coordinate to execute the Project and strictly make control procedure.

小析:翻译并不是照着原文,见词译词,见句译句。establish (v) to set up (esp. an organization); management和control具有相同的意思,同时用重复;另外英语句子中,再长的句子也只能有一个主语。

例: (2)所有承包工作将遵守当地政府的法律, 法规和要求。

原译:All the contracting work shall abide by the laws, regulations and requirements of the local government.

改译:All the work contracted shall be in compliance with the laws, regulations and requirements of the local government 0

小析:abide by的主语通常为人,用in compliance with更合乎英文习惯;另外work是被contracted.

例:(3)隐蔽工程必须在隐蔽前24小时由施工单位质检员通知业主或监理公司进行现场检查,经检查合格后方可隐蔽。

原译:The Owner or the Supervision Company must be notified by quality inspector of the construction unit for site inspection 24 hours ahead of concealing, concealed work shall only be done if qualified.

改译:The concealed work can be conducted only when it is inspected and qualified by the Owner or the Supervision Company who shall be notified by quality inspector of the construction unit for site inspection 24 hours ahead of concealing,.

小析:尽力去准确传达原文的主要意思。该句中关键词及重点是“隐蔽工程方可隐蔽必须经检验合格后”。

2 避免“中式英语”的几种方法和技巧

2.1翻译是一种再创作,它不是简单的一对一的翻译,不只是在另一种语言中寻找意义相似的词语,而是要将所译的内容输人大脑,在大脑中经过深加工,然后再输出来。就拿汉译英来说,首先,用眼睛把汉语扫一遍,让中文在大脑中留下印象,明确所 译文章整体上说什么,有什么特点;然后,用眼睛再扫一遍文章,弄清所译文章分几部分,每一部分大概又分几点;接下来开始进人角色,先把每一小部分或者说一个段落看透,吃透原文内容,明确原文 的逻辑关系。这一步非常重要,因为逻辑是语言表达的“血脉”,“血脉”梗塞,误解误译自然产生。在搞清楚各部分之间的修饰关系后,开始抓主干,把句子简化到只剩下主干部分。

例:(1)冬季施工因气温低,气候干燥和作业人员穿戴较多,手脚不灵活等,是一个事故的多发季 节。

译文:More accidents happen during winter construction due to low temperature, dry climate and workers' slow motion by more dress.

例:(2)由于采购要求或同意修改任务范围或 内容而导致批准的项目总费用和(或)进度计划发 生了变化,则称为采购变更。

原译:Because purchase department request (or approval), modification project scope or contents but caused the project cost or the project schedule to variety, this kind C.O is called the purchase change order.

改译:The change of the approved project cost and (or) project schedule, caused by the request (or approval) from purchase department for the modification of project scope or contents, is called the purchase change order.

小析:后者清楚地将它们间的逻辑及修饰关系表达了出来。

例:(3)所有有关变更单的预算都应提供足够 的工作量和单价费用明细并将系数或百分比的使 用减到最少。

译文:All estimates regarding a Variation/Change Order shall be supported by adequate quantity and unit cost detail; use of factors or percentages should be minimized.

2.2无主句颇多。遇到无主句如何下手译?

例:(关于地基处理)开挖20m X 20m,深2m的基槽,在基槽底部铺200mm厚级配砂,再回填直径为200〜300mm毛石及碎石,粉煤灰及水泥的混合 物,分层压实。

可用两种方法来译:(l)The foundation treatment is as follows: firstly, to excavate the foundation trench with 20 m 20 m and 2 m deep; secondly, to lay 200 mm thick graded sand at the bottom of foundation trench; thirdly, to backfill 200 -300mm diameter rubble and crushed stone, fly ash and cement compound; lastly, to compact by layer. (纯主动句)

(2) Firstly, the foundation trench of 20 m 20 m and 2 m deep shall be excavated; then, 200mm thick graded sand shall be laid at the bottom of foundation trench; lastly, 200-300 mm diameter rubble and crushed stone, fly ash and cement compound shall be backfilled and compacted by layer. (纯被动句)

无论运用主动句还是被动句,要注意前后句型的一致。

2.3掌握工程英语的一大主要特点,即使用被动语 态的频率很高。

例(1):在施工中加强HSE管理,除日常的检查外,每周进行专项检查和讲评。

译文:HSE management shall be strengthened in construction. Besides the daily inspection, the inspection and comment on special items shall be carried out every week.

例(2):钢筋由现场加工制作并进行绑扎。

译文:The steel bar shall be fabricated and assembled on site.

2.4由于专业性强,不要停留在字面意思,一定要 搞懂原文的真正意思,这是提髙翻译质量的前提条件。否则会产生歧义。

例(1):[关于鼓风机安装方法]油系统注油时用滤油机泵入,油路清洁度检查以100目滤网运行4 小时检查循环截面上的污点数量和程度大小制定合格与否。

原译:The oil system will adopt the oil filter to pump in when oiling. The cleanness of oil circuit inspection will use the method that is, after the 100 head trap value runs for 4 hours, to check the taint quantity and degree on the circle cross-section to determine whether it is qualified or not.

改译:The oil shall be pumped into oil system by filter press. The inspection and qualification for the cleanliness of oil circuit shall depend on the quantity and dimension of the spot on the cycle cross-section when 100 mesh strainer runs for four hours.

小析:透彻理解,专业用词,精炼译文。
例(2) (关于管道安装施工方法)蒸气伴管和泄露检测管在工艺主管线安装完成后施工。

原译:Steam following pipe and leak inspection pipe should be constructed after the completion of the technical mainline.

改译:Steam tracing and leak detector tube shall be executed after the completion of the process main pipeline.

2.5注意一定要有扎实的英语功底,熟悉英文词法 句法特点,尤其是词的搭配,灵活运用上要下功夫, 这样才能避免将中文搭配强加在英文上。

例:参加项目施工的工人进人岗位前,均要进行人场安全教育和岗位安全技术培训,并经考试合 格后方能上岗。

原译:Before taking posts, safety education and post safety technical training shall be done for the workers, whom shall take the place after passing examination.

改译:The constructors can begin work only after training for site & job safety and being qualified.

3结语

总之,要想提高汉译英译文的质量,“中式英语”是最难克服的大问题。如果要从根本上解决这个问题,需要译者一方面加强对专业知识的学习,并且平时注意搜集积累专业词汇以及国际上通用词汇;另一方面继续加强两种语言,尤其是英语的修养。一般来说,译者英语的造诣越深,其译文中的“汉式英语”就越少。

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